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Free Printable VPD Charts [PDF] Vapor Pressure Deficit Calculator

    Understanding vapor pressure deficit (VPD) is key to controlling humidity levels for optimal growth environments. VPD measures the difference between the amount of moisture in the air and how much moisture the air can hold when saturated. Monitoring VPD guides critical adjustments to temperature, humidity, and airflow. This is especially crucial for indoor cultivation facilities. This article explains how to read and utilize VPD charts to maintain ideal moisture rates.

    We’ll cover how VPD impacts transpiration, photosynthesis, and other plant processes. An annotated VPD chart is included detailing target zones for various growth stages and crops. Whether you need to lower humidity to prevent mold or increase it to avoid drought stress, our free printable VPD chart helps identify optimal ranges. With this visual guide, cultivators can master VPD analysis for healthy, vigorous growth.

    VPD Charts Printable

    A VPD chart is a reference tool used in materials science that maps out vapor pressure and deposition rate data for thin film processing. It provides guidance on optimizing deposition conditions. A VPD chart template structures this data.

    The chart plots vapor pressure on the y-axis and deposition rate on the x-axis for a given material and temperature. An overlaid curve indicates the working region for ideal film growth. Horizontal lines mark pressures for common deposition methods. The template arranges this data clearly.

    The VPD chart is used to identify and set optimal pressure and deposition rate parameters. The standardized template enables easy visualization of ideal process conditions. This allows accurate calibration of deposition rate controllers and prevents defects like low density films. An organized VPD chart template is a valuable process optimization resource.

    What is Vapor Pressure Deficit (VPD)?

    VPD Chart
    VPD Chart

    Vapor pressure deficit (VPD) measures the difference between the amount of moisture currently in the air compared to the maximum amount of moisture the air can hold when saturated. It is an indicator of the relative humidity of the air and its capacity to absorb additional moisture. VPD is determined by comparing the ambient air temperature and relative humidity against the saturation point. High VPD means the air is dry with capacity to absorb moisture before reaching saturation.

    Low VPD indicates the air is near saturation with substantial humidity already present. Monitoring VPD levels allows controlling humidity for optimal plant health and growth. By managing temperature, circulation, and humidity to maintain target VPD ranges, cultivators can minimize plant stress and create ideal growing conditions.

    Vapor Pressure Deficit (VPD) in Agriculture and Horticulture

    Monitoring and controlling vapor pressure deficit (VPD) has become a crucial practice in agriculture and controlled environment horticulture. VPD indicates the difference between current air moisture content and saturation capacity. This directly impacts transpiration, photosynthesis, nutrient uptake, and other physiological processes in plants. VPD signals moisture stress, determines irrigation needs, and triggers growth changes.

    By maintaining optimal VPD ranges, cultivators minimize plant stresses, reduce disease susceptibility, improve yields, and conserve water. Through environmental manipulation to ideal VPD levels, growers gain data-driven control over crop development and productivity. Mastering vapor pressure deficit dynamics is now essential knowledge for effective modern horticulture.

    Here are some of the key reasons VPD is important for cultivators:

    Role of VPD in Plant Physiology

    Plants rely on a delicate balance of water intake from the roots and water loss through transpiration. Transpiration is the process by which water is lost from the plant, primarily through tiny pores called stomata on the leaves. It aids in nutrient uptake, cools the plant, and drives the flow of water from the roots to the shoots.

    VPD plays a direct role in this process because, as the deficit increases, the potential for plants to lose water through transpiration also increases. When VPD is too high, plants may close their stomata to prevent excessive water loss. While this conserves water, it also limits the uptake of carbon dioxide, which is essential for photosynthesis. Consequently, this can affect the plant’s growth and productivity.

    VPD in Crop Management

    For farmers and horticulturists, maintaining an optimal VPD is crucial. In controlled environments like greenhouses, managing VPD can ensure that plants receive adequate water without encouraging conditions that might favor mold, fungi, or other pathogens. In outdoor settings, understanding VPD can help in irrigation scheduling and understanding stress conditions that might affect crop yield.

    When VPD is too low, it indicates that the air is close to saturation. This can be problematic, especially in controlled environments like greenhouses, because saturated air can lead to the formation of condensation on plant surfaces. This dampness is a prime condition for the proliferation of many plant diseases, especially fungal ones.

    On the other hand, a high VPD indicates that the air is dry, and plants may transpire more water than they can uptake, leading to water stress. This condition, if prolonged, can reduce growth rates, impair photosynthesis, and decrease yields. It can also make plants more susceptible to certain pests and diseases.

    Strategies to Optimize VPD

    In controlled environments, there are multiple strategies to manage VPD. Humidifiers, for instance, can be used to increase humidity when VPD is too high. Conversely, dehumidifiers or increased ventilation can help reduce humidity when VPD is too low. Moreover, understanding daily or seasonal fluctuations in VPD can assist in tailoring irrigation schedules in outdoor settings, ensuring plants receive water when they need it most.

    Calculating VPD

    1. The VPD Formula:

    The Vapor Pressure Deficit is calculated as the difference between the amount of moisture the air can hold when it’s fully saturated and the actual amount of moisture in the air. In a simple equation, VPD is found using the following relationship:

    VPD = Saturation Vapor Pressure (SVP) – Actual Vapor Pressure (AVP)


    • SVP refers to the maximum amount of moisture air can hold at a certain temperature.
    • AVP represents the actual amount of moisture the air currently holds.

    Both the SVP and AVP values can be determined from temperature and relative humidity, but the exact equations for these can be intricate.

    2. Factors Affecting VPD:

    a) Temperature: Temperature plays a pivotal role in VPD. When the temperature goes up, the air can hold more water vapor, thereby increasing its SVP. Conversely, when the temperature falls, the SVP decreases as the air’s capacity to hold moisture diminishes. This means that as the day progresses and temperatures rise, even if the moisture content in the air remains unchanged, the VPD will increase.

    b) Humidity: Relative humidity is a measure (in percentage) of the current amount of moisture in the air compared to its maximum potential at that temperature. If relative humidity rises, the gap between the AVP and SVP reduces, and so does the VPD. If relative humidity drops, the VPD increases as the difference between the current moisture level and the maximum potential grows.

    3. Example Calculations:

    Let’s take a straightforward example to understand this:

    Assume that at a temperature of 25°C (77°F), the SVP (or the maximum amount of moisture air can hold) is given as 30 mbar. If the relative humidity is reported to be 60%, then the AVP (or the current moisture in the air) would be 60% of 30 mbar, which equals 18 mbar.

    Plugging these values into our VPD equation: VPD = 30 mbar (SVP) – 18 mbar (AVP) This gives us a VPD of 12 mbar.

    This means that at 25°C with 60% relative humidity, the air has a moisture deficit of 12 mbar.

    VPD Chart

    The Vapor Pressure Deficit (VPD) chart is a tool that farmers, horticulturists, and other plant cultivators use to understand the difference between the amount of moisture in the air and the amount the air can hold when it is saturated. This metric is crucial because it gives insights into how plants might transpire and how they take up water. The VPD chart provides a graphical representation of the relationship between temperature, relative humidity, and VPD, making it easier for growers to adjust their climate conditions to ensure optimal growth and health for their plants.

    Interpreting a VPD Chart

    When looking at a VPD chart, you’ll typically find temperature on one axis and relative humidity on the other. The values within the chart represent the VPD in units like kilopascals (kPa). The colors or gradient on the chart can help in identifying areas of low to high VPD.

    A low VPD indicates that the air is nearly saturated with moisture, meaning there’s a lower potential for plants to transpire and release water. On the other hand, a high VPD signifies drier conditions where plants might release more water. It’s essential to maintain a balance; if the VPD is too low, plants might not transpire enough, leading to issues like mold or fungus. If the VPD is too high, plants might become stressed as they release too much water.

    Relationship between Temperature, Relative Humidity, and VPD

    Temperature and relative humidity are primary factors determining VPD. As the temperature increases, the air’s capacity to hold water vapor also rises. If the amount of moisture in the air (relative humidity) remains constant as the temperature rises, the VPD will increase. Conversely, if the temperature drops while the relative humidity remains the same, the VPD will decrease.

    However, if temperature stays constant and relative humidity decreases, the VPD will also increase. This is because a decrease in relative humidity means there’s less moisture in the air compared to its total capacity, thereby increasing the deficit. In essence, VPD is an indication of the drying potential of the air surrounding the plants.

    Optimal VPD Ranges for Various Crops

    Different crops have different VPD requirements, often based on their native climates and physiological needs. Here are some general guidelines:

    1. Leafy Greens and Herbs: These plants generally prefer a lower VPD, around 0.8 to 1.2 kPa. This helps maintain a cooler, moister environment conducive to leafy growth.
    2. Tomatoes, Cucumbers, and Peppers: These fruiting plants typically thrive in a VPD range of 1.0 to 1.5 kPa during the day. They prefer a slightly drier environment, which helps reduce the risk of fungal diseases and encourages fruit development.
    3. Cannabis: This crop, often grown under controlled environments, has an optimal VPD range of 1.2 to 1.5 kPa during its vegetative phase. During flowering, the range is slightly lower, around 1.0 to 1.2 kPa, to reduce stress on the flowers and enhance resin production.
    4. Orchids and Tropical Plants: These plants are native to humid environments and typically prefer a VPD on the lower end, often below 1.0 kPa.

    Implications of VPD in Crop Growth

    The implications of VPD is key for farmers and growers seeking to optimize crop production. This review summarizes current research on the effects of VPD on the growth and physiology of major agricultural crops. Factors influencing VPD as well as strategies to manage VPD will be discussed. The overarching aim is to provide an overview of the significance of VPD in relation to maximizing crop productivity.

    Impact on Transpiration and Plant Water Uptake

    Vapor Pressure Deficit (VPD) has a direct effect on plant transpiration, which is the process where water is moved from the soil, through the plant, and evaporated into the atmosphere. High VPD values indicate drier atmospheric conditions, which increase the potential for transpiration. This is because, in drier conditions, plants open their stomata to release more water, helping to cool themselves and intake carbon dioxide for photosynthesis. While transpiration is essential for nutrient transport and cooling, excessive transpiration due to high VPD can lead to plants losing water faster than they can take it up. This might cause dehydration, wilting, and stunted growth.

    Conversely, a low VPD means the atmosphere is more humid and closer to saturation, leading to reduced transpiration rates. When the air is saturated with moisture, the stomata might close to conserve water, as there is minimal potential for evaporative cooling. Prolonged periods of low VPD can result in plants not drawing enough water from the soil, leading to poor nutrient transport and potential root zone issues.

    Influence on Nutrient Uptake and Photosynthesis

    Transpiration plays a crucial role in the uptake and transport of nutrients from the soil to various plant parts. As water is transpired and released into the atmosphere, it creates a suction force that pulls water (and dissolved nutrients) from the soil into the plant’s roots. High VPD, which encourages increased transpiration, can enhance nutrient uptake. However, if the VPD is too high for prolonged periods, plants might face dehydration and nutrient burn, as the concentration of nutrients becomes too high due to reduced water availability.

    Photosynthesis, the process by which plants convert carbon dioxide and light into glucose, is also impacted by VPD. Open stomata, as seen in higher VPD conditions, allow for a higher intake of CO2, which can boost photosynthesis. But if the VPD is persistently high, the stomata might close to prevent excessive water loss, ultimately limiting CO2 intake and reducing photosynthesis. On the other hand, consistently low VPD might keep the stomata closed, again restricting CO2 uptake and negatively impacting photosynthetic efficiency.

    Effects on Pest and Disease Prevalence

    VPD can significantly influence the prevalence and spread of pests and diseases in crops. High VPD (dry conditions) can stress plants, making them more susceptible to certain pests and diseases. For example, spider mites thrive in dry conditions. However, the most notable implications are seen in low VPD conditions.

    Low VPD often corresponds to high humidity levels. These moist conditions are perfect breeding grounds for a variety of fungal and bacterial pathogens, such as powdery mildew, botrytis, and blight. Furthermore, pests like fungus gnats and thrips are attracted to environments with high humidity. Moist environments also mean that plant surfaces take longer to dry, further encouraging fungal growth. It’s essential to strike a balance and monitor VPD closely to prevent the establishment and spread of pests and diseases, as these can reduce yields, compromise crop quality, and increase production costs due to treatments and interventions.

    Managing VPD in Controlled Environments

    In controlled environments, such as greenhouses or indoor grow rooms, the Vapor Pressure Deficit (VPD) plays a significant role in determining the health, growth, and yield of crops. By accurately managing VPD, growers can create ideal conditions for their plants, maximizing productivity while minimizing issues related to pests, diseases, and water stress.

    Role of Ventilation and Humidity Control

    1. Ventilation: Efficient ventilation is paramount for regulating VPD in controlled environments. By introducing fresh air, growers can effectively dilute humid air, especially in situations where humidity levels are too high, thereby increasing the VPD. Besides, proper ventilation helps to ensure an adequate supply of carbon dioxide, which plants require for photosynthesis. Automated systems can be programmed to open and close vents or turn on fans based on real-time humidity and temperature readings, allowing for precise control.
    2. Humidity Control: Dehumidifiers and humidifiers play crucial roles in managing VPD. In environments with low humidity (high VPD), humidifiers can add moisture to the air, bringing down the VPD to desired levels. Conversely, in high humidity conditions (low VPD), dehumidifiers can be used to remove excess moisture, thus raising the VPD. This active control of humidity, in tandem with ventilation, ensures that the environment stays within the desired VPD range, promoting optimal plant growth.

    Using VPD to Optimize Irrigation and Misting

    1. Irrigation: VPD can be a guide for irrigation scheduling. High VPD conditions mean that plants are likely transpiring more, so they might require more frequent watering. Conversely, during low VPD conditions, plants transpire less, so overwatering can lead to waterlogged soils and potential root diseases. By monitoring VPD, growers can adjust their irrigation schedules to ensure plants receive the right amount of water at the right time.
    2. Misting: Misting systems are commonly used in controlled environments to maintain optimal humidity levels. When VPD readings are high, indicating drier conditions, misting can introduce moisture into the air, thus reducing the VPD. This not only helps maintain the desired humidity levels but also aids in keeping leaf surfaces cool, which can be beneficial under intense lighting or in high-temperature conditions. However, it’s essential to ensure that constant wetness doesn’t promote disease development, so using VPD as a guideline can help optimize misting frequency and duration.

    VPD and Lighting Considerations

    1. Intensity and Duration: Light intensity can influence plant transpiration rates. High light intensities can increase transpiration, driving up the plant’s water requirements. If combined with high VPD conditions, it can lead to rapid water loss from plants. Therefore, understanding the interplay between VPD and lighting can help growers adjust light intensity or duration to ensure plants don’t suffer from water stress.
    2. Type of Lighting: Different lighting systems, like HID (High-Intensity Discharge) lamps or LED lights, produce varying amounts of heat. HID lamps, for example, emit more heat compared to LEDs. This heat can influence the local environment’s temperature and, subsequently, the VPD. Growers must account for these heat variations when managing VPD, especially if they are transitioning from one lighting system to another.
    3. Plant Response: Some plants might elongate or stretch under low light conditions, a phenomenon called etiolation. If the VPD is also low, this can lead to lanky growth with thin stems, making plants more susceptible to pests and diseases. By managing VPD alongside lighting considerations, growers can ensure robust plant growth with a compact, bushy habit.

    VPD in Greenhouses and Indoor Gardens

    In both greenhouses and indoor gardens, the Vapor Pressure Deficit (VPD) is a crucial metric to ensure optimal plant growth and health. VPD helps growers understand the potential evaporation and transpiration rates, allowing them to adjust their cultivation strategies accordingly. Let’s delve into how environmental factors can be adjusted for optimal VPD and explore the equipment and technology that facilitate this process.

    Adjusting Environmental Factors for Optimal VPD

    1. Temperature Control: Since VPD is influenced by temperature, managing temperature is foundational to VPD control. In greenhouses, shade nets, reflective materials, or whitewash can be used to reduce temperatures during hot periods. Conversely, heating systems, thermal curtains, or warm water root zone heating can help increase temperatures during cold spells. In indoor gardens, HVAC systems can be employed to maintain desired temperature levels.
    2. Humidity Regulation: Humidity directly impacts VPD. To increase humidity, especially in indoor gardens or in greenhouses during colder months, humidifiers or misting systems can be used. On the other hand, to reduce humidity, one can employ dehumidifiers, increase ventilation, or use moisture-absorbing products.
    3. Air Circulation: Good air circulation ensures uniform temperature and humidity throughout the growing space, reducing the chance of microclimates which can harbor pests or diseases. In both greenhouses and indoor gardens, oscillating fans or exhaust fans can help maintain consistent air movement.
    4. Plant Density: The number of plants and their size in a given space can influence local humidity and, thus, VPD. As plants transpire, they release moisture into the air. If a space is overcrowded, it may lead to higher local humidity. Regular pruning, spacing plants adequately, and maintaining optimal plant density can help manage VPD.

    Equipment and Technology for VPD Monitoring and Control

    1. Sensors and Monitors: Modern VPD monitoring largely relies on digital sensors. These devices can simultaneously measure temperature and relative humidity, computing VPD values in real-time. These sensors can be standalone units or integrated into more extensive climate control systems.
    2. Climate Controllers: Advanced climate control systems can take sensor data and make real-time adjustments to the environment. For instance, if the VPD is too high, the system could activate a humidifier or reduce the heating to bring it to the desired range.
    3. Automated Ventilation Systems: These systems can be set to operate based on VPD readings. When the humidity is too high, automated vents or exhaust fans can open to release humid air, thereby adjusting the VPD.
    4. Smart Irrigation Systems: By integrating VPD data, smart irrigation systems can optimize watering schedules. For instance, during high VPD periods indicating higher transpiration rates, irrigation can be increased to ensure plants have adequate water.
    5. Data Logging and Analysis Tools: Continuous monitoring and data logging can provide insights into VPD trends over time. Growers can analyze this data to anticipate potential issues, make informed decisions, and refine their cultivation strategies for better outcomes.
    6. Mobile Applications: With the advancement of technology, there are several mobile apps linked to monitoring systems that allow growers to keep an eye on their greenhouse or indoor garden’s VPD from anywhere. These apps can send alerts when VPD goes out of the desired range, ensuring timely interventions.


    In summary, the Vapor Pressure Deficit (VPD) chart stands as a pivotal tool for growers, both novices and experts alike, providing a comprehensive lens through which the intricate relationship between temperature, humidity, and plant health can be discerned. Recognizing the essentiality of such a tool in modern cultivation practices, we’ve taken the initiative to craft an exceptionally detailed VPD chart. This chart, curated with precision and an understanding of the nuances of plant care, is not only designed to be user-friendly but also offers depth for those looking to delve deeper into the science of VPD. And to ensure that it’s easily accessible to all, we’ve made it available as a free printable PDF on TypeCalendar, our dedicated platform.

    This move reiterates our commitment to equipping growers with the best resources. Whether you’re looking to optimize the environment in a sprawling greenhouse or a compact indoor garden, our VPD chart, paired with the extensive resources on TypeCalendar, ensures that you have the requisite knowledge at your fingertips. We encourage every enthusiast to download, print, and integrate this invaluable tool into their gardening routine, reaffirming our belief that with the right information, every grower can cultivate success.


    Does a higher VPD mean drier conditions?

    Yes, a higher VPD indicates drier atmospheric conditions, which means there’s a higher potential for plant transpiration. Conversely, a lower VPD suggests a more humid environment.

    How often should I check the VPD in my garden or greenhouse?

    Regular monitoring is essential, especially if you notice signs of plant stress. With advanced equipment, you can monitor VPD in real-time, but for manual checks, doing so at least once a day, preferably during peak light hours, is advisable.

    Does a higher VPD mean drier conditions?

    Yes, a higher VPD indicates drier atmospheric conditions, which means there’s a higher potential for plant transpiration. Conversely, a lower VPD suggests a more humid environment.

    How often should I check the VPD in my garden or greenhouse?

    Regular monitoring is essential, especially if you notice signs of plant stress. With advanced equipment, you can monitor VPD in real-time, but for manual checks, doing so at least once a day, preferably during peak light hours, is advisable.

    Do all plants have the same VPD requirements?

    No, different plants have different optimal VPD ranges. It’s essential to research and understand the specific needs of each plant species or cultivar.

    How does VPD affect nutrient uptake?

    VPD can influence the rate of transpiration. As plants transpire, they draw water from the roots, which also absorbs nutrients. An optimal VPD ensures efficient nutrient and water uptake without stressing the plant.

    Can I use VPD values to optimize CO2 supplementation?

    Yes, when optimizing CO2 supplementation, considering VPD is beneficial. As VPD affects transpiration and stomatal opening, it indirectly influences CO2 absorption by plants.

    Where can I learn more about VPD and its applications?

    Numerous resources are available online, including research papers, horticultural websites, and dedicated forums. For practical applications and charts, platforms like TypeCalendar offer free downloadable resources.

    Is VPD relevant during the night?

    While VPD is most commonly discussed in the context of daylight hours when plants are actively photosynthesizing, it is also relevant at night. A proper VPD during nighttime can prevent issues like mold growth and ensure proper plant respiration.

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    Betina Jessen

    Betina Jessen

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