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Free Printable Periodic Tables: Excel, PDF

    The periodic table is a chart that shows how the 118 known chemical elements are related to one another. The elements are organized into columns and rows. This table was created for your use in homeschooling, science fair projects, or just as a study guide.

    What is the periodic table?

    Periodic Table
    Periodic Table

    The table developed for classifying chemical elements is called the periodic table. The PERIODIC TABLE, which is also named with names such as the periodic table, the periodic table, and the table of elements, is ordered according to the atomic numbers of the elements.

    History of the Periodic Table

    The periodic table was proposed by the Russian chemist Dmitry Mendeleev in 1869. Using the table, Mendeleev could accurately predict the properties of many elements before they were discovered. Carbon is an essential element for the existence of life. Francium is the rarest element on earth.

    There are probably no more than a few ounces on earth at any given time. The only letter not found in the periodic table is the letter J. The country of Argentina is named after the element silver (symbol Ag), which is Argentum in Latin. Although helium is found on earth, it was first discovered by observing the sun.

    The periodic table has undergone extensive changes over time since Mendeleev and Moseley originally developed it. Many new elements were discovered, while others were synthesized artificially. The periodic table is the arrangement of elements according to their atomic numbers so that elements with similar properties appear in the same vertical column or group.

    The history of the discoveries of the elements is also the history of developments in physics and chemistry.

    Before BC, only seven elements were known: gold, silver, copper, lead, tin, iron, and mercury. The smelting of metal ores by fire is one of the greatest revolutions in history. In this way, pure metals began to be obtained from ores in compound form. Again, with the help of fire, alloys could be made by mixing metals.

    The idea that fire, air, water, and earth are essential elements dominated human thought for nearly 2000 years.

    Thales (624-546 BC) considered water the most basic substance. For Thales, everything came from water.

    On the other hand, Anaximander (b. 610 BC) thought that the basic substance was a substance that he called aperion, whose quality was indefinite and whose quantity was infinite.

    For Anaximenes (585-525 BC), the most basic (indivisible) substance was air.

    Aristotle (384-322 BC) thought that the seven known metals came from the earth, air, fire, and water and that each body was composed of mixtures of these four substances in various proportions.

    The most important goal for alchemists was to learn how base metals such as lead or mercury could be converted into gold. For this purpose, they applied various processes to the ores. These efforts of alchemists led not only to the discovery of new elements but also to the invention of chemistry instruments, some of which were used until the 17th century.

    The transition from alchemy to chemistry corresponds to the period of study of the properties of air and the discovery of oxygen.

    How to use a Printable Periodic Table of Elements

    The periodic table is a flexible and user-friendly tool that helps organize the elements. It is divided into cells, which represent an element. Rows are called periods, and columns are called groups. Elements with similar chemical characteristics are given a group name and colored the same color in some tables. There are also four blocks, each containing different groups.

    In the modern periodic table, the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number.

    It is arranged in horizontal rows (period) and vertical columns (groups).

    There are seven periods in the periodic table

    • 2 in the 1st period,
    • 8 in the 2nd and 3rd periods,
    • 18 in the 4th period
    • 18 in the 5th period,
    • There are 32 elements in the 6th period.
    • The 7th period is not completed yet.
    • The 14 elements of the 6th and 7th periods are placed under the ruler. These are called Lanthanides and actinides.
    • Groups are of 2 types, A and B.
    • There are 8 A and 10 B groups.

    Atoms in the same group have similar chemical properties.

    Some of the groups have special names. These names are

    • 1A group alkali metals,
    • 2A alkaline earth metals,
    • 3A group earth metal,
    • group 4A carbon group,
    • 5A group nitrogen group,
    • 6A group oxygen group,
    • group 7A halogens,
    • Group 8A noble gases and
    • B groups are in the form of transition metals.

    Exceptions to the Periodic Table;

    • Other atoms in group 1A, except the hydrogen atom is, metal.
    • Except for the 1st period, the other periods start with the alkali metal.
    • Boron(B) in group 3A shows nonmetal properties.
    • Fluorine (F) in the 7A group takes only -1 valence in the compounds it makes.
    • While the number of valence electrons of the helium atom in group 8A is 2, that of the other atoms is 8.
    • Except for Period 7, all periods end with a noble gas.
    • A halogen atom comes before other noble gas atoms except helium.
    • Transition metals start from the 4th period.

    Changing Features On The Periodical Table

    • As the month goes from left to right in the periodic table;
    • Atomic number increases
    • Mass number increases
    • Atomic diameter (volume) decreases.
    • Metallic character is reduced
    • Nonmetallic features increases
    • The number of valence electrons increases
    • The ability to donate electrons is reduced
    • Increases the ability to gain electrons
    • The number of protons increases
    • Acid properties of oxides of elements increase, and basic properties decrease.
    • As you go down the group of the month in the periodic table;
    • Atomic number increases
    • Mass number increases
    • Atom diameter (volume) increases
    • Increases metallic character
    • The nonmetallic feature is reduced
    • The basic feature of the oxides of the elements increases, and the acidic feature decreases
    • The number of protons increases
    • The number of valence electrons does not change
    • The desire to donate electrons increases
    • Decreased desire to gain electrons

    Conclusion

    To summarize, the periodic table is important because it is organized to provide so much information about the elements and how they relate to each other in one easy-to-use reference. The table can be used to predict properties even for elements that have yet to be discovered.

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